Integrated Pest Management (IPM) on school property is a long-term approach to maintaining healthy landscapes & facilities that minimizes risks to people and the environment. Wherever possible, the School will take a preventive approach by identifying and removing, to the degree feasible, the basic causes of the problem rather than merely attacking the symptoms (the pests). So, control strategies that remove a pest’s food, water, and shelter (harborage), and limit its access into and throughout buildings and on school grounds are favored.
Specifically, IPM uses site assessment, monitoring, and pest prevention in combination with a variety of pest management tactics to keep pests within acceptable limits. Instead of routine chemical applications, cultural, mechanical, physical, and biological controls will be employed with selective use of pesticides when needed. Educational strategies are used to enhance pest prevention, and to build support for the IPM program.
- Cultural control: e.g., improve sanitation; reducing clutter; people change habits like leaving food in the classroom; maintain plant health by taking care of the habits and conditions; fertilization, plant selection (right plant/right place), and sanitation to exclude problematic pests and weeds.
- Physical control: e.g., pest exclusion; removing pest access to the school building by sealing openings with caulk and copper mesh; repairing leaks and screens; removing pests by hand.
- Mechanical control: e.g., trap rodents; till soil prior to planting to disrupt pest life cycles.
- Biological control: use of pest’s natural enemies. e.g., conservation and/or augmentation of natural enemies of pests in the landscape; introduce beneficial insects or bacteria to the environment or, if they already exist, provide them with the necessary food and shelter and avoids using broad-spectrum chemicals that will inadvertently kill them.
- Least hazardous chemical controls with preference given to NEW JERSEY School IPM Act-defined ‘low impact pesticides’ (check out these webpages).
In the practice of IPM, it is important to:
- correctly identify the pest,
- understand the biology and behavior of the pest,
- determine if control is needed,
- know the available control measures and evaluate their usage (risks, benefits and effectiveness),
- implement safe and effective control tactics, and
- evaluate the control efforts.
So, we have compiled topic web links for School IPM coordinators and practitioners of IPM on pests, prevention, and control; this section is a work in progress and is under construction. The successful practice of IPM is community-based. We have included Rutgers Cooperative Extension New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station (RCE) fact sheets whenever available on a given pest. These could be used as outreach tools to the school community if there is a particular problem. See fact sheets below for:
- Indoors: ants, booklice, cockroaches, fleas, general household and structural, termites, wasps.
- Ornamentals: Best Management Practices for Pest Prevention
- Ornamentals: Insects and Nematodes
- Ornamentals: Diseases
- Turf: Best Management Practices for Pest Prevention
- Turf Insect Pests: The RCE ‘Integrated Approach to Pest Management’ fact sheet series
- Turf: Diseases
- Other pest prevention and controls
- House Ants and Their Control. RCE Factsheet FS137. 8/20/2003.
- Carpenter Ants and Their Control (4 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS1101. 5/1/2009.
- Bed Bugs (3 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS 1098. 4/24/2009.
- Detecting Bed Bugs Using Bed Bug Monitors (3 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS1117. 1/25/2010.
- Silverfish and Firbrats and Their Control (2 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS008. 10/1/2001.
- Booklice and Silverfish. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS).
- Cockroach Species in New Jersey and Their Control Strategies. FS1327. 11/23/2020.
- German Cockroach. Rutgers NJAES FS1322. 7/13/2020.
- Cockroaches and Their Management. University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Factsheet ENY 214. Publication Date: January 1994. Revised: January 2003. Insecticides including several baits (which would be considered ‘low-impact’ pesticides by NJ’s definition).
- Full selection of Cockroach fact sheets produced by University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS).
- Control of Cat and Dog Fleas (2 pp.). FS090. 8/29/2003.
- The National Pediculosis Association,® Inc. A non-profit with tools and techniques for headlice removal. Frequently asked questions.
Other Specific Household, Structural, and Human Insect Pests Fact Sheets & Bulletin
- Brown Marmorated Stinkbug – A Non-native Insect in New Jersey (2 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS002. 10/27/2008.
- About Millipedes (2 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS005. 7/1/2001.
- The Boxelder Bug and Its Control (2 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS075. 7/30/2003.
- Brown Dog Tick Control (1 p.). RCE Factsheet FS007. 8/1/2003.
- Carpenter Bees (2 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS 1095. 4/24/2009.
- Carpenter Ants and Their Control (4 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS1101. 5/1/2209.
- Carpet Beetles (2 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS175. 10/11/2001.
- Frequently Asked Questions About Mosquitoes (2 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS900. 2/1/1998.
- The Indian Meal Moth (2 pp.). RCE Factsheet FS1122. 5/13/2010.
- Spiders of Medical Importance (3 pp.). RCE Factsheet RCE Factsheet FS1121. 5/27/2010.
- Termite Prevention and Control (4 pp.) RCE Factsheet FS338. 4/30/2019.
- Wasps and Their Control. RCE Factsheet FS212. 8/1/03.
- Bees and Wasps (3 pp.) RCE FS1134. 10/26/2010.
Ornamentals: Best Management Practices for Pest Prevention
- Best Management Practices for Irrigating Landscape Plant Material (4 pp.). RCE FS1005. 3/29/2002.
- Tree Problems Caused by People in the Suburban Landscape (4 pp.). RCRE FS122. 6/1/1993.
- Problems With Over-Mulching Trees and Shrubs (2 pp.). RCE FS099. 4/17/2000.
- Natural Pest Control – Using Beneficial Insects to Control Landscape Pests (5 pp.). RCE FS930. 8/1/2003.
- How to Fertilize Shade Trees (4 pp.). FS031. 9/1/2003.
Ornamentals: Insects and Nematodes
- Black Vine Weevil: Life Cycle, Monitoring, and Pest Management in New Jersey (2 pp.).RCE FS667. 5/1/2001
- Lacebugs: Life Cycle, Monitoring, and Pest Management in New Jersey (4 pp.). RCE FS783. 9/1/01.
- Foliar Nematodes in Ornamental Plants (2 pp.). RCE FS878.12/1/98.
- Birch Leafminer, Fenusa pusilla (Lepeletier) (3 pp.) FS1164. 8/18/2011.
- Common Springtime Diseases of Woody Ornamentals in the Landscape (6 pp.). RCEE160. 1/1/92.
- Oak Leaf Scorch (2 pp.). RCE FS875. 12/1/98.
- An Integrated Approach to the Control of Canker Diseases in Woody Ornamentals. II. Black Knot of Prunus (2 pp.). RCE FS876. 12/1/98.
- An Integrated Approach to the Control of Canker Diseases in Woody Ornamentals. III. Perennial Nectria Canker (2 pp.). RCE FS877. 12/1/98.
- An Integrated Approach to Canker Diseases in Woody Ornamental, IV. Botryosphaeria Canker (2 pp.). RCE FS401. 12/1/2000.
Turf: Best Management Practices for Pest Prevention
- Turfgrass Establishment Procedures for Sports Fields (9 pp.) NJAES E300. 8/30/2005.
- Management of Natural Turf Sports Fields (9 pp.). E354. 8/19/2016.
- Best Management Practices for Nutrient Management of Turf in New Jersey (5 pp.) 11/4/2009.
- Organic Land Care Best Management Practices Manual (27 pp.). E357. 4/26/2017.
- IPM for Turfgrass in Schools. Web page. Bio-Integral Resource Center (BIRC). Page accessed 2/29/06.
- Best Management Practices for Irrigating Golf Course Turf (12 pp.). RCE E278. 5/1/2002.
- Managing Soil pH for Turfgrasses (4 pp.). RCE FS635. 8/27/03.
- Understanding Fertilizer Labels (2 pp.). RCE FS871. 4/1/1997.
- Thatch Management in Turf (4 pp.). RCE FS740. 4/1/1994.
- Best Management Practices for Watering Lawns (4 pp.). RCE FS555. 5/1/2001.
- Fine Fescues: Low-Maintenance Species for Turf (2 pp.). RCE FS688. 9/1/1996.
- Tall Fescue Varieties for New Jersey Sports Fields (4 pp.) RCE FS544. 11/3/2004.
- Perennial Ryegrass Varieties for New Jersey (4 pp.). RCE FS989. 2/1/2002.
- Tall Fescue Varieties for New Jersey (4 pp.). RCE FS990. 2/1/2002.
- Renovating Your Lawn (2 pp.). RCE FS108. 6/1/1993.
- Seeding Your Lawn (4 pp.). RCE FS1993. 2/27/2004.
Best Pest Management Practices
- Ant Management in Turfgrass (4 pp.). FS013. 11/10/2003.
- Mole Management in Turf and Gardens (4 pp.). FS025. 2/9/2004.
- Crabgrass and Goosegrass Identification and Control in Cool-Season Turfgrass for Professionals. FS 1309. 8/19/2019.
- Broadleaf Weed Control in Cool Season Turfgrasses (4 pp.). FS385. 7/30/2003.
- Yellow Nutsedge Control in Landscaped Turf (2 pp.). FS543. 8/1/2001.
- Controlling Ground Ivy in Home Lawns (2 pp.) FS1219. 11/18/2013.
Turf Insect Pests: The Rutgers Cooperative Extension ‘Integrated Approach to Pest Management ‘ fact sheet series
- Annual Bluegrass Weevil (4 pp.). RCE 1016. 2/1/03.
- Black Cutworm (4 pp.). RCE FS1013. 11/1/2002.
- Nematodes (4 pp.). RCREFS1014. 11/1/2002.
- Billbugs (4 pp.). RCE FS1015. 11/1/2002.
- Sod Webworms (4 pp.). RCE FS1007. 6/1/2002.
- Hairy Chinch Bug (4 pp.). RCREFS1008. 6/1/2002.
- White Grubs (4 pp.). RCE FS1009. 6/1/2002.
- Managing Diseases of Landscape Turf (4 pp.). RCE FS814. 9/1/1995.
- An Integrated Approach to Red Thread and Pink Patch Disease Control in Landscape Turf(2 pp.). RCE FS798.
- An Integrated Approach to Dollar Spot Disease in Turfgrasses (3 pp.) 9/1/2007. FS1070.
- Chemical Control of Turfgrass Diseases 2020 (34 pp.) 11/1/2019. PPA1.
Other Pest Prevention and Controls
- Nematodes as Biological Control Agents of Insects. Webpage. Also book P.S. Grewal, R. U. Euhlers, and D. Shapiro-Ilan (Editors). Documents major developments in the use of nematodes for biological control of insects and slugs.
- Viewpoint: Nematodes as Biological Control Agents of Insects (journal article). G. C. Smart, Jr. Supplement to the Journal of Nematology 27(4S):529-534. 1995.© The Society of Nematologists 1995.
- Using Horticultural Oils (4 pp.). RCE FS866. 3/1/1997.