New Jersey Cabbage IPM Guidelines

Joseph Ingerson-Mahar, Vegetable IPM Coordinator
Kristian Holmstrom, Vegetable IPM Program Associate
Sally Walker, Vegetable IPM Program Associate
George Hamilton, IPM Coordinator
Rutgers Cooperative Extension

 MAJOR PESTS

 Insects

Diseases

Weeds

 diamondback moth

 Alternaria leaf spot

 broadleaves

 imported cabbageworm

 black rot

 annual grasses

 cabbage looper

 blackleg

 

 onion thrips

 clubroot

 

 cabbage maggot

 downy mildew

 

 cabbage aphids

 Fusarium yellows

 

 flea beetles

 Sclerotinia white mold

 

 

 root rot

 

The following practices are general guidelines that many, if not, most farmers in New Jersey already practice. It is felt that all farmers should be able to adopt these guidelines on 100% of their acreage within a 3-year period. It is recognized that adoption of specific practices may not always be possible depending upon the unique circumstances of the individual farmer. However, farmers should strive to adopt the highly recommended practices in order to be considered an IPM farmer.

 

A. SITE PREPARATION AND SELECTION

 Priority

H = high

M = medium

L = low

For Direct Seeded cabbage skip to A II

 

I) Seed beds:

 

1) Rotate and isolate seedbeds from production areas to reduce incidence and spread of Alternaria leaf spot, black rot, blackleg, downy mildew, root rot, and clubroot diseases.

H

2) Scout for black rot and destroy any black rot infected beds.

H

3) Maintain for weed-free beds.

M

II) Fields:

 

1) Soil sample at least once every 3 years and fertilize and lime according to recommendations. Assay a portion of soil sample for plant parasitic nematodes.

H

2) Take soil sample from field to determine soil texture by mechanical analysis for each soil type within the field. This needs to be done only once for each field to help determine herbicide rates.

H

3) Take soil sample from field to determine percent organic matter to help adjust herbicide rates. This needs to be done whenever cropping practices change. That is, going from fallow to crops, from perennial crops to annual crops.

H

4) adjust pH to between 7.0 and 7.2 in fields with a history of clubroot

H

5) avoid fields with history of Fusarium yellows or use yellows resistant varieties

H

6) review weed maps of fields to choose appropriate weed control strategies

H

7) Do not plant thrips sensitive varieties adjacent to small grains or hay fields, which can be a source of thrips.

M

III) Crop Rotation

 

1) Use the following rotation guidelines for reducing potential disease problems for fields that have recently been used for growing crucifers. If the previous planting of crucifers was infected with Alternaria, rotate out of cabbage 1 year, 2 years for black rot, 3 years for Sclerotinia, 4 years for black leg, and 7 years for clubroot.

H

IV) Fertility

 

1) Soil test at least once every 3 years. Maintain records. Fertilize according to test results.

H

B. PLANTING

 

I) Seed and Seedlings:

 

1) Use varieties that are resistant or tolerant to onion thrips, black rot, and/or Fusarium yellows as appropriate.

H

2) Use uninfected, hot-water treated seed to reduce black rot, OR use seed tests to determine if seed is infected.

M

3) Use insecticide application for cabbage maggot control on roots of transplants.

H

4) Transplants, particularly those from out-of-state, should be inspected by NJ Department of Agriculture, Division of Plant Industry and used only if they are free of diamondback moth, black rot, black leg, club root, and Alternaria.

M

 

 

C. PEST MONITORING AND FORECASTING

 

1) Scout weekly for insects and diseases: cabbage looper, diamondback moth, imported cabbageworm, onion thrips, cabbage aphids, cabbage maggot, black rot, clubroot, downy mildew, Alternaria leaf spot, Fusarium yellows, root rot, and Sclerotinia white mold. Scout 2 to 3 times per week for flea beetles when plants are in cotyledon stage (direct seeded).

H

2) Update weed map of the field when crop is no taller than 6 inches for use in evaluating the current year's weed control and for use in determining if a post emergent treatment is needed.

H

3) If black rot occurs in field do not cultivate or spray until foliage is dry and clean equipment after use in infected fields.

H

D. PEST MANAGEMENT

 

1) Follow applicable thresholds established for pests.

H

2) Use recommended, labeled .pesticides, or, appropriate alternative option for pest control.

H

 

 

3) Keep records of pest densities, biological control techniques used, cultural procedures, and pesticide applications. Keep records of pest populations for each field for review in future years. Keep records of natural enemy populations, if possible.

H

4) Subscribe to Plant and Pest Advisory Newsletter - vegetable edition, or access via internet or by fax info-line and follow applicable recommendations provided there.

H

5) Follow Rutgers Commercial Vegetable recommendations for pests that do not have thresholds

 

H

6) Calibrate sprayer annually

H

E. POST HARVEST

 

1) Upon completion of early and midseason fields, disk/plow cabbage residues to promote breakdown of tissues infected with black rot, Alternaria leaf spot, blackleg, clubroot, downy mildew, root rot, and Sclerotinia white mold.

H

2) Make (or update if one has been made for this field previously) a weed map of the field for use in planning for next year.

H

3) Treat perennial weeds with nonselective translocated herbicides

H

4) Establish cover crop for weed control nitrogen retention for early and mid season fields.

H